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He was a Virginia slaveowner, candy essay. Moreover, in the south as well as the north, most regarded the communist-led Viet Minh candy essay great patriots, having fought and sacrificed to end French rule. Likewise, I feel that my time at State University would make my potential similarly limitless. Spinach is so high in vitamin A and K that you only need a small handful to meet your needs. While experimenting with where to get my potassium from I looked at two alternative sources: Where others see the engineering, experimentation, and presentation of science as a chore, I only see excitement. The editors candy essay the Christian Century, for example, argued that dialogue and negotiation with communist states and leaders were both possible and preferable, and that the U.



Recommended resources Did you know? He worked with U. He began his speech with the words of the American Declaration of Independence: The Creator has given us certain inviolable Rights: Ho Chi Minh appealed to the U. In July , international peace agreements were signed in Geneva, stipulating that Vietnam be temporarily divided for two years in order to separate French and Viet Minh forces, and that unifying national elections be held in July The United States refused to sign or abide by the agreements.

The new government of South Vietnam was authoritarian, repressive, corrupt, and controlled by a foreign nation the U. The rebellion grew into an insurgency war, which North Vietnam led by Ho began aiding in January The inability of the South Vietnamese government to defeat the insurgency led to a decision by the Johnson administration to deploy U.

By , over , U. The American War in Vietnam was primarily fought in the south and largely against the rural population. Between and , the United States dropped 6,, tons of bombs on Southeast Asia, which was 2.

The movement encompassed thousands of Vietnam veterans and active duty GIs as well as prominent religious leaders such as Martin Luther King.

Introduction The Vietnamese people, by and large, viewed American intervention in their country in much the same way as they viewed French colonization, as an unwanted imposition of foreign control. When the French were defeated, the U. He was also immensely popular with the people — the George Washington of Vietnam — and would likely have been elected president had the U.

In an interview with the American historian Christian Appy, General Vo Nguyen Giap, the military architect of victories over the French and the Americans, explained why Vietnamese resistance fighters fought and prevailed: We won the war because we would rather die than live in slavery. Our history proves this. Our deepest aspiration has always been self-determination….

In my opinion, the Vietnam War was not in the American interest. It was a big mistake. The Americans inflicted insane atrocities. The My Lai massacre was just an example…. Perhaps the American people know this already, but they need to be told again and understand more. Given widespread opposition to the U. Vietnam posed no security threat to the United States or to its allies. The historian Fredrik Logevall has written extensively about missed opportunities for peace in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations.

Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. A half-century of excellent scholarship on the Vietnam War is drawn together and frequently cited in this essay. Before the French arrived in the 17th century, the traditional adversary had been Chinese kingdoms. French Catholic missionaries first arrived around Their efforts to convert the population and gain political influence led to periodic persecution and banishment, which in turn served as pretexts for French military intervention.

With superior weapons, French forces attacked the port city of Danang in , seized Saigon the following year, and secured control over the whole of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia by The French exploited Vietnam for rice and rubber, formed an alliance with the Vietnamese royalty to rule more effectively, and suppressed resistance movements.

Amid the foreign takeover, Vietnamese life remained rooted in the extended family, village life, reverence for the land, and Confucian and Buddhist beliefs and practices, in the main. The population grew from about 10 million in to 24 million in , when the Vietnamese began their thirty-year struggle for national independence. One of the ironies of this mission was that many of the colonials who embraced Western ideas of political freedom and independence became leaders of anti-imperialist movements seeking to overthrow the colonial regimes.

Ho made his first appearance on the world stage at the Versailles peace conference in , following World War I. Wearing a borrowed suit and using the pseudonym Nguyen Ai Quoc Nguyen the Patriot , Ho presented a letter to the leaders of the victorious nations respectfully asking for recognition of the rights of the Vietnamese people.

President Woodrow Wilson had previously indicated his support for the principle of self-determination, telling Congress on February 11, National aspirations must be respected; peoples may now be dominated and governed only by their own consent. It is an imperative principle of actions which statesmen will henceforth ignore at their peril. Ho Chi Minh in Paris in In the aftermath of the Versailles Conference, Ho turned to socialist writings for inspiration, and to socialist and communist parties for support.

In the summer of that year, the Second Congress of the Communist International met in Petrograd and Moscow, and declared its support for anti-colonial revolutions, offering revolutionaries space for headquarters and limited funding.

In , Ho became a founding member of the Indochinese Communist Party. For Ho and many other colonial subjects, the socialist-communist ideal was attractive not only because it condemned imperialism but also because it heralded a more just economic and social order. The French had long exploited Vietnamese workers in factories, mines, and farms, maintaining a system of land tenure that left much of the rural population in misery. The net effect of this system was that many peasants went hungry for months, eating perhaps only one meal a day.

The French suppressed the rebellion, killing and imprisoning many rebels and their supporters. So many were imprisoned, according to the historian David G. In September , the Japanese took control of French Indochina through an agreement with the French that gave them ultimate power while leaving local matters in French hands.

The goal was to rid the country of both the Japanese and the French. During the war, the Viet Minh operated a clandestine army and initiated a land redistribution program. In , a combination of droughts, floods, war conditions, and Japanese policies produced a catastrophic famine that took the lives of one to two million Vietnamese.

The Japanese continued to stockpile rice for their troops and for export to Japan even as the Vietnamese starved to death. The Viet Minh attacked the storehouses and distributed the confiscated rice, gaining them widespread popular support. Access to food and land remained the paramount issues in Vietnam long after the war. He hoped it would help him secure Vietnamese national independence after the war. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill had issued a joint statement in August the Atlantic Charter that guaranteed the right of self-determination for all peoples.

Churchill later backed off from the pledge, insisting that it should not apply to British colonies. Roosevelt called for an international trusteeship system and gained the support of Joseph Stalin for this idea at the wartime conference in Tehran in November Nationalism was rising across the colonial world, the imperial European powers had been weakened by the war, and world opinion was turning against the very idea of imperialism and the racism and aggression it implied.

During the thirty-year period following World War II, virtually all European colonies gained their independence. Vietnamese independence and the First Indochina War On August 15, , news of the Japanese surrender reached Vietnam along with word that Chinese troops would supervise the surrender in the north, and British troops in the South. A few days later, having made certain the Japanese would not interfere, the Viet Minh called for mass rallies in Hanoi and later in Hue and Saigon.

Thousands of peasants poured into the cities from the countryside, demonstrating their support for the Viet Minh in huge rallies. On August 30, Emperor Bao Dai, who had served the French and then the Japanese and would live to serve the French once more , presented the imperial seal and sword, symbols of Vietnamese sovereignty, to representatives of the Viet Minh and voluntarily abdicated the throne.

Facing a crowd of half a million people in the main square of Hanoi, Ho began with the words of the American Declaration of Independence. Ho named his source and explained its meaning: In a larger sense this means that all the people on earth are born equal, all the people have the right to live, to be happy, to be free. The whole Vietnamese people, animated by a common purpose, are determined to fight to the bitter end against any attempt by the French colonialists to reconquer their country.

We are convinced that the Allied nations which at Tehran and San Francisco have acknowledged the principle of self-determination and equality of nations, will not refuse to acknowledge the independence of Vietnam….

Vietnam has the right to be a free and independent country — and in fact is so already. None of the great powers officially recognized the government of Ho Chi Minh and the French were intent on restoring their empire in Southeast Asia.

More French troops soon arrived, 13, of whom were transported by a dozen U. In the first American protest against U. The DRV addressed the famine through careful rationing and a mass campaign for planting food crops. By March , the famine had ended — a stunning achievement. The DRV also initiated industrial development, labor and taxation reforms, and literacy programs. The agreement, signed on March 6, promised that the French government would recognize the Vietnamese Republic as a Free State within the Indochinese Federation of the French Union, and that all French troops would be removed from Vietnam, north and south, by The last time the Chinese came, they stayed a thousand years.

The French are foreigners. The white man is finished in Asia. But if the Chinese stay now, they will never go. As for me, I prefer to sniff French dung for five years than eat Chinese dung for the rest of my life. Ho was nevertheless well received in the French media. The French, however, showed their hand on November 22, Using a dispute over control of customs in Haiphong as a pretext, French warships bombarded the unprotected port city, killing at least 6, and wounding some 25, For the sake of peace, we have made concessions.

But the more conciliatory we are, the more aggressive the French colonists become. They are determined to reconquer our country. We would rather sacrifice everything.

We are determined not to lose our country and not be enslaved. Dear compatriots, we must rise up. Male and female, old and young, regardless of religion, political party, ethnicity, all Vietnamese must rise up to fight French colonialism and to save the fatherland. What was the U.

It was a contradictory formula, as the vast majority of Vietnamese had no desire to live under French rule.



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