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InI posted an essay on privacy of e-mail in the USA. Role leading to French Revolution[ edit ] Afterduring the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVIthe parlements repeatedly challenged tort law essay crown for control over policy, tort law essay, especially regarding taxes and religion. The concept of "natural law" emerged in ancient Greek philosophy concurrently and in connection with the notion of justice, and re-entered the mainstream of Western culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinastort law essay, notably his Treatise on Law. A trial in the Ottoman Empire,when religious law applied under the Mecelle Main article: The personal service of the clergy is to fulfill all the functions relating to education and religious observances and to contribute to the relief of the unfortunate through its alms. The criminal first plants remote-control programs on dozens of computers that have broadband access to the Internet.

Conclusion Introduction There are no precise, reliable statistics on the amount of computer crime and the economic loss to victims, partly because many of these crimes are apparently not detected by victims, many of these crimes are never reported to authorities, and partly because the losses are often difficult to calculate.

Nevertheless, there is a consensus among both law enforcement personnel and computer scientists who specialize in security that both the number of computer crime incidents and the sophistication of computer criminals is increasing rapidly. Experts in computer security, who are not attorneys, speak of "information warfare". While such "information warfare" is just another name for computer crime, the word "warfare" does fairly denote the amount of damage inflicted on society.

Two comments on word usage in this essay: However, to most users of English, the word "hacker" refers to computer criminals, and that is the usage that I have adopted in this essay. The legal problem of obscenity on the Internet is mostly the same as the legal problem of obscenity in books and magazines, except for some technical issues of personal jurisdiction on the Internet.

Similarly, many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers: Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information stored on the hard disk inside the computer is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers with proprietary information. Using the Internet or online services to solicit sex is similar to other forms of solicitation of sex, and so is not a new crime.

Using computers can be another way to commit either larceny or fraud. In contrast to merely using computer equipment as a tool to commit old crimes, this essay is concerned with computer crimes that are new ways to harm people. E-mails with bogus From: These acts might be punishable by existing criminal statutes that prohibit impersonation, forgery, deceit, or fraud. However, a judge might decide that the specific language in old statutes about writing or signature does not apply to e-mail.

Similar issues arise in both: Unauthorized Use Unauthorized use of computers tends generally takes the following forms: The criminal reads or copies confidential or proprietary information, but data is neither deleted nor changed. For example, change a grade on a school transcript, add "money" to a checking account, etc.

Unauthorized changing of data is generally a fraudulent act. Deleting entire files could be an act of vandalism or sabotage. Denying service to authorized users. On a modern time-sharing computer, any user takes some time and disk space, which is then not available to other users.

During , computer programs and data were generally stored on cardboard cards with holes punched in them. If a vandal were to break into an office and either damage or steal the punch cards, the vandal could be adequately punished under traditional law of breaking and entering, vandalism, or theft. However, after about , it became common to enter programs and data from remote terminals a keyboard and monitor using a modem and a telephone line.

The traditional laws were no longer adequate to punish criminals who used computer modems. Most unauthorized use of a computer is accomplished by a person in his home, who uses a modem to access a remote computer. In this way, the computer criminal is acting analogous to a burglar. The classic definition of a burglary is: Either the burglary statute needed to be made more general or new criminal statute s needed to be enacted for unauthorized access to a computer.

Legislatures chose to enact totally new statutes. There are several basic ways to get these data: This sounds ridiculous, but many people will give out such valuable information to anyone who pretends to have a good reason. Not only should you refuse to provide such information, but please report such requests to the management of the online service or the local police, so they can be alert to an active criminal.

In the s and early s, many of these computer voyeurs also used technology to make long-distance telephone calls for free, which technology also concealed their location when they were hacking into computers.

Many of these voyeurs take a special thrill from hacking into military computers, bank computers, and telephone operating system computers, because the security is allegedly higher at these computers, so it is a greater technical challenge to hack into these machines.

The criminals who change or delete data, or who deliberately gobble large amounts of computer resources, have a more sinister motive and are capable of doing immense damage.

In this regard, I would make an analogy to a homicide that occurs "accidentally" during the commission of a felony: In the s and early s, a common reaction was that hackers were a minor nuisance, like teenagers throwing rolls of toilet paper into trees. Altering files on that computer could have killed patients, which reminded everyone that hacking was a serious problem. This incident was cited by the U. Congress in the legislative history of a federal computer crime statute.

Victims of such attacks include various U. Attacking the FBI website is like poking a lion with a stick. This is not the worst kind of computer crime. The proper owner of the site can always close the website temporarily, restore all of the files from backup media, improve the security at the site, and then re-open the site. The Internet is a medium for freely sharing information and opinions.

These criminals often make the self-serving excuse for their actions that they only attack sites sponsored by bad corporations or bad people. However, this excuse makes these criminals into vigilantes who serve as legislature, judge, jury, and executioner: One example of punishment for the crime of defacing a website is the case of Dennis M.

In February , he made "unauthorized intrusions" into computers at four different U. See the New Hampshire DoJ press release. Denial of Service DoS Attacks A denial of service attack occurs when an Internet server is flooded with a nearly continuous stream of bogus requests for webpages, thereby denying legitimate users an opportunity to download a page and also possibly crashing the webserver.

The criminal first plants remote-control programs on dozens of computers that have broadband access to the Internet. When the criminal is ready to attack, he instructs the programs to begin pinging a specific target address.

The computers containing the remote-control programs act as "zombies". The victim computer responds to each ping, but because the zombie computers gave false source addresses for their pings, the victim computer is unable to establish a connection with the zombie computers. Typically, after one or two hours, the criminal instructs his programs to stop pinging the victim. My essay , Tips for Avoiding Computer Crime, has specific suggestions for how you can use firewall software on your computer to prevent your computer from being used by criminals in DoS attacks on victims.

The following is one case involving a famous series of DoS attacks: The Yahoo website was attacked at The websites of amazon. About fifty computers at Stanford University, and also computers at the University of California at Santa Barbara, were amongst the zombie computers sending pings in these DoS attacks.

The attacks received the attention of President Clinton and the U. The FBI began to investigate. Because he was a juvenile, his name can not be publicly disclosed, so he was called by his Internet pseudonym Mafiaboy. CNN reported that Mafiaboy was granted bail, with the following conditions: He spent two weeks in jail. In December , Mafiaboy, now 16 y old, dropped out of school after being suspended from school six times since the beginning of that academic year, and failing all of his classes except physical education , and was employed at a menial job.

He was again granted bail. On 18 Jan , Mafiaboy pleaded guilty to 5 counts of mischief to data and 51 counts of illegal access to computers. In issuing the sentence, Judge Gilles Ouellet commented: This is a grave matter. This attack weakened the entire electronic communications system. And the motivation was undeniable, this adolescent had a criminal intent. A virus is a program that "infects" an executable file.

After infection, the executable file functions in a different way than before: There are two key features of a computer virus: Running the executable file may make new copies of the virus.

A worm is a program that copies itself. Releasing such a worm into the Internet will slow the legitimate traffic on the Internet, as continuously increasing amounts of traffic are mere copies of the worm. A Trojan Horse is a deceptively labeled program that contains at least one function that is unknown to the user and that harms the user.

A Trojan Horse does not replicate, which distinguishes it from viruses and worms. Other Trojan Horses are downloaded perhaps in an attachment in e-mail and installed by the user, who intends to acquire a benefit that is quite different from the undisclosed true purpose of the Trojan Horse. A logic bomb is a program that "detonates" when some event occurs. The detonated program might stop working e. A hoax is a warning about a nonexistent malicious program.

I have a separate essay that describes how to recognize hoaxes, and how to respond to them. Some confusion about the distinction between a virus and a worm is caused by two distinctly different criteria: For most viruses or worms, these two different criteria give the same result. However, there have been a few malicious programs that might be considered a virus by some and a worm by others.

Ultimately, the taxonomy matters only to computer scientists who are doing research with these malicious programs. The first computer virus found "in the wild" was written in in a computer store in Lahore, Pakistan. In the s, computer viruses were generally spread by passing floppy disks from one user to another user. In the late s, computer viruses were generally spread via the Internet, either in e-mail e.

The worm rapidly copied itself and effectively shut down the Internet. My long discussion of a few famous malicious programs is in a separate essay , emphasizes the nonexistent or weak punishment of the authors of these programs. There is a reported case under state law for inserting a logic bomb into custom software.

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