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In 18th Amendment, essay on floods in pakistan, judges appointments are proposed by a Parliamentary Commission. I felt a new rhythm of life and returned home with a mixed sense of duty and liberty. Another brother, Ngo Dinh Can, was virtual ruler of the Annam region. All of them went unanswered. I came across many unknown faces. The editors of the Christian Century, for example, argued that dialogue and negotiation with communist states and leaders were both possible and preferable, and that the U.



Executive branch[ edit ] The president of Pakistan, in keeping with the constitutional provision that the state religion is Islam, must be a Muslim. Elected for a five-year term by an Electoral College consisting of members of the Senate and National Assembly and members of the provincial assemblies, the president is eligible for re-election.

But no individual may hold the office for more than two consecutive terms. The president may resign or be impeached and may be removed from office due to incapacity or gross misconduct by a two-thirds vote of the members of the parliament. The president generally acts on the advice of the prime minister but has important residual powers. Despite this most recent power-stripping, the President remains the ex officio chair of the National Security Council , as per the National Security Act The prime minister is appointed by the members of the National Assembly through a vote.

The prime minister is assisted by the Federal Cabinet, a council of ministers whose members are appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister.

The Federal Cabinet comprises the ministers, ministers of state, and advisers. As of early , there were thirty-three ministerial portfolios: Legislative branch[ edit ] The bicameral federal legislature consists of the Senate upper house and National Assembly lower house. Senate[ edit ] The Senate is a permanent legislative body with equal representation from each of the four provinces, elected by the members of their respective provincial assemblies. The chairman of the Senate, under the constitution, is next in line to act as president should the office become vacant and until such time as a new president can be formally elected.

Both the Senate and the National Assembly can initiate and pass legislation except for finance bills. Only the National Assembly can approve the federal budget and all finance bills. In the case of other bills, the president may prevent passage unless the legislature in joint sitting overrules the president by a majority of members of both houses present and voting. Unlike the National Assembly, the Senate cannot be dissolved by the President. National Assembly[ edit ] National Assembly of Pakistan Members of the National Assembly are elected by universal adult suffrage formerly twenty-one years of age and older but the seventeenth amendment changed it to eighteen years of age.

Seats are allocated to each of the four provinces, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, and Islamabad Capital Territory on the basis of population. National Assembly members serve for the parliamentary term, which is five years, unless they die or resign sooner, or unless the National Assembly is dissolved. Although the vast majority of the members are Muslim, about 5 percent of the seats are reserved for minorities, including Christians, Hindus, and Sikhs.

Elections for minority seats are held on the basis of separate electorates at the same time as the polls for Muslim seats during the general elections. Member 3 Now withstanding anything contained in clause 1 or clause 2 , the President shall appoint the most senior Judge of the Supreme Court as the Chief Justice of Pakistan. The chief justice and judges of the Supreme Court may remain in office until age sixty-five: It consists of 8 Muslim judges appointed by the President of Pakistan after consulting the Chief Justice of this Court, from amongst the serving or retired judges of the Supreme Court or a High Court or from amongst persons possessing the qualifications of judges of a High Court.

Of the 8 judges, 3 are required to be Ulema who are well versed in Islamic law. The judges hold office for a period of 3 years, which may eventually be extended by the President. If any part of the law is declared to be against Islamic law, the government is required to take necessary steps to amend such law appropriately. The court also exercises revisional jurisdiction over the criminal courts, deciding Hudood cases.

The decisions of the court are binding on the High Courts as well as subordinate judiciary. The court appoints its own staff and frames its own rules of procedure. Ever since its establishment in , the Federal Shariat Court of Pakistan has been the subject of criticism and controversy in the society.

Created as an islamisation measure by the military regime and subsequently protected under the controversial 8th Amendment, its opponents question the very rationale and utility of this institution. It is stated that this court merely duplicates the functions of the existing superior courts and also operates as a check on the sovereignty of Parliament.

The composition of the court, particularly the mode of appointment of its judges and the insecurity of their tenure, is taken exception to, and it is alleged, that this court does not fully meet the criterion prescribed for the independence of the judiciary. That is to say, it is not immune to pressures and influences from the Executive. In the past, this court was used as a refuge for the recalcitrant judges.

In 18th Amendment, judges appointments are proposed by a Parliamentary Commission. Judges of the provincial high courts were, previously appointed The seventeenth amendment give these powers to the president, previously Prime minister exercised them by the president after consultation with the chief justice of the Supreme Court, as well as the governor of the province and the chief justice of the high court to which the appointment is being made.

High courts have original and appellate jurisdiction. In addition, there are special courts and tribunals to deal with specific kinds of cases, such as drug courts, commercial courts, labour courts, traffic courts, an insurance appellate tribunal, an income tax appellate tribunal, and special courts for bank offences.

There are also special courts to try terrorists. Appeals from special courts go to high courts except for labour and traffic courts, which have their own forums for appeal. Appeals from the tribunals go to the Supreme Court. The office of Mohtasib was established in many early Muslim states to ensure that no wrongs were done to citizens. Appointed by the president, the Mohtasib holds office for four years; the term cannot be extended or renewed.

The Mohtasib is empowered to award compensation to those who have suffered loss or damage as a result of maladministration. Excluded from jurisdiction, however, are personal grievances or service matters of a public servant as well as matters relating to foreign affairs, national defence, and the armed services. This institution is designed to bridge the gap between administrator and citizen, to improve administrative processes and procedures, and to help curb misuse of discretionary powers.

Civilian, yet socialist-oriented autocratic, rule continued from to under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, but he was deposed by General Zia-Ul-Haq. She was the youngest woman ever to be elected the Head of Government and the first woman to be elected as the Head of Government of a Muslim country.

Her government was followed by that of Nawaz Sharif, and the two leaders alternated until the military coup by General Pervez Musharraf in From the resignation of President Rafiq Tarar in , to his own resignation in , Musharraf was the President of Pakistan.

In , Asif Ali Zardari was elected president. Form of Government[ edit ] Officially a federal republic , Pakistan has had a long history of alternating periods of electoral democracy and authoritarian military government. General elections were held in October After monitoring the elections, the Commonwealth Observer Group stated in conclusion: We believe that on election day this was a credible election: However, in the context of various measures taken by the government we are not persuaded of the overall fairness of the process as a whole.

Kashmir in Pakistani politics[ edit ] Azad Kashmir has its own constitution, the Azad Jammu and Kashmir Interim Constitution Act of , and a locally chosen parliamentary form of government, as described above.

The constitution allows for many of the structures that comprise a self-governing state, including a legislative assembly elected through periodic elections, a prime minister who commands the majority in the assembly, an indirectly elected president, an independent judiciary, and local government institutions. But these provisions are hollow. The latter body, presided over by the Prime Minister of Pakistan , exercises paramount authority over the AJK Legislative Assembly , which cannot challenge decisions of the council.

The council is under the numerical control of the federal government in Islamabad, as in addition to the Pakistani prime minister it comprises six other federal ministers, the minister of Kashmir affairs as the ex-officio member, the prime minister of Azad Kashmir, and six Azad Kashmir members elected by the Legislative Assembly. Its decisions are final and not subject to judicial review.

Provincial Governments[ edit ] The subdivisions of Pakistan Pakistan is subdivided into 4 provinces, 2 territories, and 1 capital territory. Each province has a Provincial Assembly, a directly elected legislature. Members are elected for five-year terms. Each Assembly elects a Chief Minister, who then selects the ministers of his or her cabinet.



Free sample essay on The Natural Calamities. In recent years natural calamities have taken a heavy toll of lives and this is something quite shocking. Earthquakes, tsunami and floods batter some islands like Indonesia again and again. As waves rise to some meters people walking by the side of the. Essay # 1. Introduction to Earthquake: An earthquake is a major demonstration of the power of the tectonic forces caused by endogenetic thermal conditions of the interior of .

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