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One ought to look through several sources in order to understand his subject better. J Am Diet Assoc. Photo essays can be sequential in nature, intended to be viewed in a particular order ó or they may consist of non-ordered photographs viewed all at once 5 page essay in an order that the viewer chooses. If vertical farming succeeds, 5 page essay, it will establish the validity of sustainability, irrespective of location urban vrs rural. Economic An economic essay can start with a thesis, or it can start with a theme.

Significantly reduces use of fossil fuels farm machines and transport of crops Makes use of abandoned or unused properties No weather related crop failures Offers the possibility of sustainability for urban centers Converts black and gray water to drinking water Adds energy back to the grid via methane generation Creates new urban employment opportunities Reduces the risk of infection from agents transmitted at the agricultural interface Returns farmland to nature, helping to restore ecosystem functions and services Controls vermin by using restaurant waste for methane generation No-cost restoration of ecosystems: The best reason to consider converting most food production to vertical farming is the promise of restoring ecosystem services and functions This belief stems, in part, from numerous anecdotal observations as to the current biological state of some territories that were once severely damaged either by now-extinct civilizations or over-farming, and, in part, from data derived from National Science Foundation-sponsored long-term ecological research program LTER , begun in , on a wide variety of fragmented ecosystems purposely set aside subsequent to an extended period of encroachment The following case studies will serve to illustrate these points.

Deforestation of vast tracts of tropical rainforest throughout Mesoamerica took place over several thousand years It is estimated that there were as many as 50 million people living in this region, with some 17 million in Mexico, alone, when the conquistadores arrived in the s.

Re-forestation of deserted regions previously inhabited by pre-Colombian civilizations e. Regions that remained populated continued to suffer the ecological consequences of deforestation ibid , but in the abandoned areas the re-growth of the rainforests in some parts of Central America was so complete that by nearly all of the major ancient cities and monuments lying between Panama and southern Mexico had been canopied under them.

Today, archaeological expeditions routinely discover previously unknown settlements and the life and times of the peoples that lived there, but they are hard-won victories, accompanied by much difficulty in navigating the dense growth that protect these treasures of the past from open view. New finds are now often aided by sophisticated remote sensing technologies Along the northern border of the Brazilian jungle live the Yanomami.

These people have never been conquered by European colonialists. Left to evolve on their own without interference from the outside, they have formed a series of loosely knit tribes that have developed shifting agricultural methods to live off the land, mostly by hunting bush meat and subsistence farming, without causing permanent damage to the environment in which they must live Their farming methods do not include fire as a forest clearing mechanism.

Instead, they cut down the trees, creating large open circles. Then they burn the trees to get enough minerals to fertilize the cleared zone. They farm the nutrient-poor soils for several years, raising sweet potatoes, plantains, sugar cane, and tobacco, and then they move on.

By the time the Yanomami return to the same farming locale, some years later, the area has re-grown to its former state. Without fire as a confounding factor, the Yanomami have achieved a rare a balance with the land in which crops are produced and forestland is repaired by a natural cycle that favors the survival of both sets of life forms.

Many other cultures living close to the land were not as fortunate as the Yanomami to have conceived and implemented sustainable relationships with their surroundings and have paid the ultimate price, that of extinction They attracted thousands of hopeful immigrants from the eastern United States and Europe to that area of the west.

Over the next 20 years, rainfall was above average and farming flourished. However, the next years saw some of the worst droughts in recorded history for that region. The result was a systematic erosion of millions of tons of topsoil The situation intensified from with increasingly devastating results The weather patterns had conspired to defeat these early settlers in their quest to re-shape the landscape into productive farmland. Lesions learned, no one returned to the dust bowl region for some 15 years.

During the intervening period, nurturing precipitation regimens returned, and the assemblages of wildlife long absent re-populated the region. Tall and short grasses re-built the soil enough to attract back the kit fox, antelope, prairie dog, and a wide variety of endemic birds and other support plants, reclaiming their niches and restoring the region to a mixed grasslands prairie. Seeds of native plants that had lain dormant germinated and thrived when competition with cash crop species for limited resources ceased.

Following WWII, the area once again suffered ecological loss from the impacts of farming. This time that activity was supported by groundwater pumped from the Ogallala aquifer for irrigation of wheat, which requires additional water to achieve maximum yield However, this initiative, too, will apparently fail soon for the same reason that the first wave of farming on the Great Plains did, namely the lack of a reliable source of freshwater.

In this case, too much groundwater has already been drawn off 55, 56 , lowering the water table and resulting in an economic conundrum, where the price of oil, a necessary ingredient to fuel the heavy-duty pumps needed to raise water from a greater depth than at present currently fueled by cheaper natural gas-driven pumps , will not prove to be cost-effective with respect to the price of wheat It is anticipated that when this generation of farmers abandons the land, the prairie will once again dominate the landscape.

The de-militarized zone between North and South Korea represents a small strip of land some 1, km2 in area and off limits to people since the end of the Korean War in Farming communities once abundant there no longer till the soil. The result of abandonment has been striking, and in favor of ecological recovery During the intervening years, remnant populations of wildlife have re-bounded into robust populations within that narrow region, including the Asiatic black bear, musk deer, and the red-crowned crane.

The above observations give hope for an almost complete recovery of abandoned land. But it is long-term ecological research projects 61, 62 see also: Twenty-seven countries are currently engaged in some form of long-term ecological research, while 19 LTER projects are conducted within the continental United States.

One of the most intensively studied is Hubbard Brook in northern New Hampshire 63, 64, 65, The area is a mixed boreal forest watershed that has been harvested at least three times in modern times s Originally under the directorship of Gene Likens, a portion of watershed was cut and the wood left in place Weirs were installed to collect and monitor the quality of the water draining into Hubbard Brook from the tributary in the altered portion.

The study revealed a remarkable resiliency of that watershed. It took only three years for the water draining the damaged area to return to its original high quality This came about largely because of the seeds of species of pioneer shade-intolerant plants that lay dormant until exposed to direct sunlight.

Growth was rapid, and they served as a temporary soil conservation element in that environment until the trees shade tolerant once again grew to displace them. Ecologists from several collaborating institutions converge on the Hubbard Brook watershed each summer to monitor a wide variety of ecological processes for a complete list see: Other LTER sites within the US study grasslands, estuaries, alpine forest, wetlands, semi-arid desert, lakes, rivers, and coastal savannas.

All have a similar story to tell regarding the ability of the natural landscape to return to a functional state when allowed to re-establish ecological relationships fostering the uninterrupted flow of energy from one trophic level to the next. Waste management and urban sustainability Today, we face the challenge of trying to understand enough about the process of ecological balance to incorporate it into our daily lives i. Our willingness to try to solve problems that we ourselves have created is a measure of our selflessness and altruistic behavior as a species.

Thus, the second most important reason to consider converting to vertical farming relates to how we handle waste 67 , and particularly that which comes from living in urban centers 68; see also: Waste management throughout the world, regardless of location, is in most cases unacceptable, both from a public health and social perspective, and exposure to untreated effluent often carries with it serious health risks 69, 70, However, even in the best of situations, most solid waste collections are simply compacted and relegated to landfills, or in a few instances, incinerated to generate energy Liquid wastes are processed digested, then de-sludged , then treated with a bactericidal agent e.

More often in less developed countries, it is discarded without treatment, greatly increasing the health risks associated with infectious disease transmission due to fecal contamination All solid waste can be re-cycled returnable cans, bottles, cardboard packages, etc. A major source of organic waste comes from the restaurant industry Methane generation from this single resource could contribute significantly to energy generation, and may be able to supply enough to run vertical farms without the use of electricity from the grid.

For example, in New York City there are more than 21, food service establishments, all of which produce significant quantities of organic waste, and they have to pay to have the city cart it off. Often the garbage sits out on the curb, sometimes for hours to days, prior to collection.

This allows time for vermin cockroaches, rats, mice the privilege of dining out at some of the finest restaurants in the western hemisphere; albeit second-hand Vertical farming may well result in a situation in which restaurants would be paid according to the caloric content? In New York City, on average restaurants close down each year, the vast majority of which are precipitated by inspections conducted by the New York City Department of Health.

A common finding by inspectors in these situations is vermin mouse and rat droppings, cockroaches and unsanitary conditions that encourage their life styles. Agricultural runoff despoils vast amounts of surface and groundwater 78, 79, 80, 81, Vertical farming offers the possibility of greatly reducing the quantity of this non-point source of water pollution. In addition, it will generate methane from municipal waste currently being funneled into water pollution control facilities.

Natural systems function in a sustainable fashion by recycling all essential elements needed to produce the next generation of life This way of doing business is being incorporated by NASA engineers into all future programs that focus on colonizing outer space. If we are to live in closed systems off the surface of the earth 84 , then the concept of waste becomes an outdated paradigm.

If we are to live in a balanced extraterrestrial environment, we must somehow learn how to do it here first. Sludge, derived from waste water treatment plants of many, but not all cities throughout the US, and treated with a patented process referred to as advanced alkaline stabilization with subsequent accelerated drying, is being turned into high grade topsoil and sold as such to the farming community at-large by N-Viro Corporation, Toledo, Ohio.

The limiting factor in using municipal sludge for farming appears to be heavy metal contamination, mostly from copper, mercury, zinc, arsenic, and chromium Vertical farms will be engineered to take in black or gray water, depending upon availability, and restore it to near drinking water quality using bioremediation 88 and other technologies yet to be perfected.

Fast growing inedible plant species e. They will be periodically harvested for methane generation employing state-of-the-art composting methods 91 , yielding energy to help run the facility. By-products of burning methane ó CO 2, heat, and water ó can be added back into the atmosphere of the vertical farm to aid in fostering optimal plant growth. The resulting purified water will be used to grow edible plant species.

Ultimately, any water source that emerges from the vertical farm should be drinkable, thus completely re-cycling it back into the community that brought it to the farm to begin with.

Harvesting water generated from evapo-transpiration appears to have some virtue in this regard, since the entire farm will be enclosed. A cold brine pipe system could be engineered to aid in the condensation and harvesting of moisture released by plants. Nonetheless, several varieties of new technology will be needed before sewage can be handled in a routine, safe manner within the confines of the farm. Lesions learned from the nuclear power plant industry should be helpful in this regard.

Social benefits of vertical farming Eliminating a significant percentage of land dedicated to traditional farming has obvious health advantages regarding the restoration of ecosystem services, and for the immediate improvement of biodiversity by simultaneously restoring ecosystem functions, as well.

The social benefits of urban agriculture promise an equally rewarding set of achievable goals. However, since the vertical farm is still a theoretical construct, it is difficult to predict all of the potential benefits that may arise from producing food in this manner.

The first is the establishment of sustainability as an ethic for human behavior At present, there are no examples of a totally sustained urban community anywhere in the world. The development of this keystone ecological concept has remained identified solely with the natural world, and specifically with reference to the functioning of ecosystems.

Ecological observations and studies, beginning with those of Teal 93 , show how life behaves with regards to the sharing of limited energy resources Tight knit assemblages of plants and animals evolve into trophic relationships that allow for the seamless flow of energy transfer from one level to the next, regardless of the type of ecosystem in question In fact, this is the defining characteristic of all ecosystems.

In contrast, humans, although participants in all terrestrial ecosystems, have failed to incorporate this same behavior into their own lives. If vertical farming succeeds, it will establish the validity of sustainability, irrespective of location urban vrs rural.

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Total 3 comments.
#1 30.07.2018 ‚ 13:45 Vitoslav:
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#2 07.08.2018 ‚ 07:00 Iceball:
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#3 07.08.2018 ‚ 12:56 Howard007:
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