1. Introduction

It is hoped that technology will lead to a reduction in global warming, with hardcore geoengineering coming in to save the day, e. The second was the "Little Ice Age", a period in which the temperatures dropped so low the Thames River in London froze over. Regardless of the turnaround time or field of study, global warming introduction essay, you can be sure we have qualified personnel to handle the assignment global warming introduction essay you. This explains how a reduced temperature difference between the pole and temperate latitudes leads to a weaker and more meandering jet stream. Biology offers us a solution.

In common language equity means "the quality of being impartial" or "something that is fair and just. Chitre argues, and Emerging markets countries, such as India and China, often would rather analyze Per capita emissions instead of committing to aggregate Emissions reduction because of historical contributions by the Industrialized nations to the climate change crisis, under the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities. Climate change scenario Projected total carbon dioxide emissions between ó using the six illustrative "SRES" marker scenarios.

Some of these projections aggregate anthropogenic emissions into a single figure as a " carbon dioxide equivalent " CO2-eq. The effects of aerosol and land-use changes e. Six of the SRES emissions scenarios have been used to project possible future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Uncertainties such as the removal of carbon from the atmosphere by " sinks " e. Atmospheric GHG concentrations can be related to changes in global mean temperature by the climate sensitivity.

Hope , [58] for example, found that uncertainty over the climate sensitivity was the most important factor in determining the social cost of carbon an economic measure of climate change impacts. Costóbenefit analysis[ edit ] Standard costóbenefit analysis CBA [59] also referred to as a monetized costóbenefit framework [60] can be applied to the problem of climate change.

If, for example, some countries were to benefit from future climate change but others lose out, there is no guarantee that the winners would compensate the losers; [61] similarly, if some countries were to benefit from reducing climate change but others lose out, there would likewise be no guarantee that the winners would compensate the losers.

This criterion has been justified on the basis that: This contrasts with a strategy in which no action is taken until research resolves all key uncertainties. One of the problems of climate change are the large uncertainties over the potential impacts of climate change, and the costs and benefits of actions taken in response to climate change, e.

A near-term hedging strategy concerned with reducing future climate impacts might favour stringent, near-term emissions reductions. To put it differently, stringent near-term emissions abatement can be seen as having an option value in allowing for lower, long-term stabilization targets.

This option may be lost if near-term emissions abatement is less stringent. This may suggest an approach where near-term emissions abatement is more modest. Economics of climate change mitigation The mitigation portfolio.

The first were resilient strategies. This seeks to identify a range of possible future circumstances, and then choose approaches that work reasonably well across all the range. The second were adaptive strategies. The idea here is to choose strategies that can be improved as more is learned as the future progresses. Granger Morgan et al. Portfolio theory[ edit ] An example of a strategy that is based on risk is portfolio theory. This suggests that a reasonable response to uncertainty is to have a wide portfolio of possible responses.

In the case of climate change, mitigation can be viewed as an effort to reduce the chance of climate change impacts Goldemberg et al. The risk associated with these impacts can also be spread. As part of a policy portfolio, climate research can help when making future decisions. Technology research can help to lower future costs. Optimal choices and risk aversion[ edit ] See also: Decision analysis requires a selection criterion to be specified. In a decision analysis based on monetized costóbenefit analysis CBA , the optimal policy is evaluated in economic terms.

The optimal result of monetized CBA maximizes net benefits. Another type of decision analysis is cost-effectiveness analysis. Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to minimize net costs. Monetized CBA may be used to decide on the policy objective, e.

The benefits of emissions reductions are included as part of the assessment. Unlike monetized CBA, cost-effectiveness analysis does not suggest an optimal climate policy. For example, cost-effectiveness analysis may be used to determine how to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations at lowest cost. However, the actual choice of stabilization target e.

The choice of selection criterion for decision analysis is subjective. One of the influences on this choice on this is attitude to risk. Risk aversion describes how willing or unwilling someone is to take risks. Evidence indicates that most, but not all, individuals prefer certain outcomes to uncertain ones. Risk-averse individuals prefer decision criteria that reduce the chance of the worst possible outcome, while risk-seeking individuals prefer decision criteria that maximize the chance of the best possible outcome.

In terms of returns on investment, if society as a whole is risk-averse, we might be willing to accept some investments with negative expected returns, e. Reasons for concern As stated, there is considerable uncertainty over decisions regarding climate change, as well as different attitudes over how to proceed, e. Risk management can be used to evaluate policy decisions based a range of criteria or viewpoints, and is not restricted to the results of particular type of analysis, e.

By contrast, monetized CBA converts all impacts into a common unit money , which is used to assess changes in social welfare. International insurance[ edit ] Traditional insurance works by transferring risk to those better able or more willing to bear risk, and also by the pooling of risk Goldemberg et al.

However, there is reason to believe that different regions will be affected differently by climate change. This suggests that pooling might be effective. Since developing countries appear to be potentially most at risk from the effects of climate change, developed countries could provide insurance against these risks.

A study carried out by David R. Financial markets for risk There are several options for how insurance could be used in responding to climate change Arrow et al. Countries suffering greater-than-average climate-related losses would be assisted by those suffering less-than-average losses.

This would be a type of mutual insurance contract. Another approach would be to trade "risk securities " among countries. These securities would amount to betting on particular climate outcomes. These two approaches would allow for a more efficient distribution of climate change risks. They would also allow for different beliefs over future climate outcomes. Countries that honestly believe that climate change presents little risk would be more prone to hold securities against these risks.

Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'. The effort has focused on changes observed during the period of instrumental temperature record, particularly in the last 50 is the period when human . Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent climate changes on Earth, commonly known as 'global warming'. The effort has focused on changes observed during the period of instrumental temperature record, particularly in the last 50 is the period when human .

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