Neighborhood and other social links, often reinforced by marriage, can be stronger than extended kinship, afghanistan essay. It is still a time for celebration when relatives and friends visit each other and bring gifts for the children, afghanistan essay. Seleucus is said to have reached a peace treaty with Chandragupta by giving control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Mauryas upon intermarriage and elephants. The public sphere is the domain of men, and the afghanistan essay one is the realm of women. Many of these guys, after all, had been, or still were volunteer soldiers.

Early peasant farming villages came into existence in Afghanistan about 7, years ago. Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others at Darra-e Kur in where stone implements were recovered along with a fragment of Neanderthal right temporal bone , suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 52, years ago.

The artifacts indicate that the indigenous people were small farmers and herdsmen, very probably grouped into tribes, with small local kingdoms rising and falling through the ages. Urbanization may have begun as early as BCE. Other religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism flourished later, leaving a major mark in the region. Gandhara is the name of an ancient kingdom from the Vedic period and its capital city located between the Hindukush and Sulaiman Mountains mountains of Solomon , [19] although Kandahar in modern times and the ancient Gandhara are not geographically identical.

Urban civilization may have begun as early as BCE and it is possible that the early city of Mundigak near Kandahar was a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. Indus Valley Civilization[ edit ] Main article: The city of Balkh Bactra was founded about this time c.

Medes There have been many different opinions about the extent of the Median kingdom. For instance, according to Ernst Herzfeld , it was a powerful empire, which stretched from central Anatolia to Bactria , to around the borders of nowadays India. On the other side, Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg insists that there is no real evidence about the very existence of the Median empire and that it was an unstable state formation.

Nevertheless, the region of nowadays Afghanistan came under Median rule for a short time. The area was divided into several provinces called satrapies , which were each ruled by a governor, or satrap. These ancient satrapies included: Several great cities were built in the region named "Alexandria," including: Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

June Main article: Greco-Bactria continued until c. The Mauryas introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the region, and were planning to capture more territory of Central Asia until they faced local Greco-Bactrian forces. Seleucus is said to have reached a peace treaty with Chandragupta by giving control of the territory south of the Hindu Kush to the Mauryas upon intermarriage and elephants. Similar stupas have been discovered in neighboring Ghazni Province , including in the northern Samangan Province.

Alexander took these away from the Indo-Aryans and established settlements of his own, but Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus Chandragupta , upon terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange elephants. Sandrocottus, having thus acquired a throne, was in possession of India, when Seleucus was laying the foundations of his future greatness; who, after making a league with him, and settling his affairs in the east, proceeded to join in the war against Antigonus.

As soon as the forces, therefore, of all the confederates were united, a battle was fought, in which Antigonus was slain, and his son Demetrius put to flight. In this context a legend recorded by Husang Tsang refers to the first two lay disciples of Buddha, Trapusa and Bhallika responsible for introducing Buddhism in that country. Originally these two were merchants of the kingdom of Balhika, as the name Bhalluka or Bhallika probably suggests the association of one with that country.

They had gone to India for trade and had happened to be at Bodhgaya when the Buddha had just attained enlightenment. They displaced the Indo-Greeks and ruled a kingdom that stretched from Gandhara to Mathura. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Scythians were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni of the Satavahana dynasty.

The Indo-Parthian Kingdom was ruled by the Gondopharid dynasty, named after its eponymous first ruler Gondophares. They ruled parts of present-day Afghanistan , Pakistan , [38] and northwestern India , during or slightly before the 1st century AD. For most of their history, the leading Gondopharid kings held Taxila in the present Punjab province of Pakistan as their residence, but during their last few years of existence the capital shifted between Kabul and Peshawar.

Christian writings claim that the Apostle Saint Thomas an architect and skilled carpenter had a long sojourn in the court of king Gondophares , had built a palace for the king at Taxila and had also ordained leaders for the Church before leaving for Indus Valley in a chariot, for sailing out to eventually reach Malabar Coast. Kushan Empire Kushan territories full line and maximum extent of Kushan dominions under Kanishka dotted line , according to the Rabatak inscription.

Early Mahayana Buddhist triad. The Kushan Empire expanded out of bactria Central Asia into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor, Kujula Kadphises , about the middle of the 1st century CE.

They came of an Indo-European language speaking Central Asian tribe called the Yuezhi , [39] [40] a branch of which was known as the Kushans.

By the time of his grandson, Kanishka the Great , the empire spread to encompass much of Afghanistan , [41] and then the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent at least as far as Saketa and Sarnath near Varanasi Benares. Historian Vincent Smith said about Kanishka: He played the part of a second Ashoka in the history of Buddhism. The Kushans brought new trends to the budding and blossoming Gandhara Art , which reached its peak during Kushan Rule. The Kushan period is a fitting prelude to the Age of the Guptas.

Sasanian Empire For a period, much of modern-day Afghanistan was part of the Persian Sasanian Empire , since Shapur I extended his authority eastwards into Afghanistan and the previously autonomous Kushans were obliged to accept his suzerainty.

The analogy isn't exact. But the war in Afghanistan is starting to look disturbingly familiar. Read the latest stories about photography on Time.

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