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Approaches Used to Define Particular Term

The Russian Revolution, initiated inperhaps the most idealistic and utopian of all, also failed. In a similar regard, in the renowned hero narrative, Grendel, Beowulf is an ideal hero to the Geats since he goes out of his way to serve the needs of every other person, and always maintains a selfless character, heroism definition essay, throughout the quest of helping others Gardner What is the history of affirmative action in education? Edition voting essay Translation differences[ edit ] "The Doctrine of Heroism definition essay edit ] "Fascism, the more it considers and observes the future and the development of humanity quite apart from political considerations of the moment, believes neither in the possibility nor the utility of perpetual peace. Choose an essay topic that interests you. What is it like to be an illegal alien? Some consider acts of heroism definition essay as heroism while for some it is any act which is extra ordinary.



A socialism emancipated from democracy. A trade unionism free of the chains of the class struggle had imposed on Italian labour. A methodical and successful will to bring together in a same fascio all the human factors of national production A determination to approach, to threat, to resolve the worker question in itself He uses the term "Ur-fascism" as a generic description of different historical forms of fascism.

The fourteen properties are as follows: When all truth has already been revealed by Tradition, no new learning can occur, only further interpretation and refinement. Eco distinguishes this from a rejection of superficial technological advancement, as many fascist regimes cite their industrial potency as proof of the vitality of their system.

This, says Eco, is connected with anti-intellectualism and irrationalism , and often manifests in attacks on modern culture and science. Fascist societies rhetorically cast their enemies as "at the same time too strong and too weak.

On the other hand, fascist leaders point to the decadence of those elites as proof of their ultimate feebleness in the face of an overwhelming popular will. Both fascist Germany under Hitler and Italy under Mussolini worked first to organize and clean up their respective countries and then build the war machines that they later intended to and did use, despite Germany being under restrictions of the Versailles treaty to NOT build a military force.

This principle leads to a fundamental contradiction within fascism: Eco sees in these attitudes the root of a deep tension in the fundamentally hierarchical structure of fascist polities, as they encourage leaders to despise their underlings, up to the ultimate Leader who holds the whole country in contempt for having allowed him to overtake it by force.

As Eco observes, "[t]he Ur-Fascist hero is impatient to die. In his impatience, he more frequently sends other people to death. Fascists thus hold "both disdain for women and intolerance and condemnation of nonstandard sexual habits, from chastity to homosexuality. As no mass of people can ever be truly unanimous, the Leader holds himself out as the interpreter of the popular will though truly he dictates it.

Fascists use this concept to delegitimize democratic institutions they accuse of "no longer represent[ing] the Voice of the People. Flynn[ edit ] In , American classical liberal journalist John T. Like other classical liberals, he was mainly concerned with the economic aspects of fascism. Flynn advises the reader to identify an American fascist as follows: When you can put your finger on the men or the groups that urge for America the debt-supported state, the autarchial corporative state, the state bent on the socialization of investment and the bureaucratic government of industry and society, the establishment of the institution of militarism as the great glamorous public-works project of the nation and the institution of imperialism under which it proposes to regulate and rule the world and, along with this, proposes to alter the forms of our government to approach as closely as possible the unrestrained, absolute government then you will know you have located the authentic fascist.

James Gregor[ edit ] A professor of political science emeritus at the U. He has denied that fascism is "right-wing extremism.

The core myth that inspires this project is that only a populist, trans-class movement of purifying, cathartic national rebirth palingenesis can stem the tide of decadence [3] Griffin writes that a broad scholarly consensus developed in English-speaking social sciences during the s, around the following definition of fascism: As such it is an ideology deeply bound up with modernization and modernity, one which has assumed a considerable variety of external forms to adapt itself to the particular historical and national context in which it appears, and has drawn a wide range of cultural and intellectual currents, both left and right, anti-modern and pro-modern, to articulate itself as a body of ideas, slogans, and doctrine.

In the inter-war period it manifested itself primarily in the form of an elite-led "armed party" which attempted, mostly unsuccessfully, to generate a populist mass movement through a liturgical style of politics and a programme of radical policies which promised to overcome a threat posed by international socialism, to end the degeneration affecting the nation under liberalism, and to bring about a radical renewal of its social, political and cultural life as part of what was widely imagined to be the new era being inaugurated in Western civilization.

Hayek[ edit ] Classical liberal economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek , in his book The Road to Serfdom , argued that socialism and national socialism had similar intellectual roots.

Werner Sombart was hailed as a Marxist and persecuted for his beliefs, but when he later rejected internationalism and pacifism in favor of German militarism and nationalism, he became an intellectual force for national socialism early on. Johann Plenge , another early national socialist intellectual, saw national socialism as a German adaptation of socialism.

Paul Lensch was a socialist politician in the Reichstag who argued for central control of the economy and for militarism that became features of national socialism. He wrote that Western or English liberalism, which includes the ideas of freedom, community, and equality and rule by parliamentary democracy, was anathema in a true Germany, where power should belong to the whole, everyone is given his place, and one either obeys or commands.

Oswald Spengler in his early writings advocated many of the ideas shared by German socialists at this time. Arthur Moeller van den Bruck , a patron saint of national socialism, per Hayek, claimed that World War I was a war between liberalism and socialism and that socialism lost. Like Plenge and Lensch, he saw national socialism as socialism adapted to the German character and undefiled by Western ideas of liberalism.



I think it is possible to outline a list of features that are typical of what I would like to call Ur-Fascism, or Eternal Fascism. These features cannot be organized into a system; many of them contradict each other, and are also typical of other kinds of despotism or fanaticism. But it is enough that one of them be present to allow fascism to coagulate . Heroism Definition Essay spandex and capes, the good deeds done still allow them to be considered heroic. Heroism can be saving others, as portrayed on TV. That would be having selflessness.

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