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Modern day martyrs, like Father Marcos Khalilserve as reminders of the miracle of Coptic survival. High Priest of Amun" at the temple of Karnak, egypt essay, which was, otherwise, a male office. The earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about BC. For example, there were restrictions on repairing old Churches and building new ones, on testifying in court, on public behavior, on adoption, on inheritance, on public religious activities, and on dress egypt essay. The Holy Egypt essay was translated to the Coptic language in the second century.



The modern use of the term "Coptic" describes Egyptian Christians, as well as the last stage of the ancient Egyptian language script. Also, it describes the distinctive art and architecture that developed as an early expression of the new faith. He was one of the four evangelists and the one who wrote the oldest canonical gospel. The Coptic Church, which is now more than nineteen centuries old, was the subject of many prophecies in the Old Testament. The Coptic church regards itself as a strong defendant of Christian faith.

The Nicene Creed , which is recited in all churches throughout the world, has been authored by one of its favorite sons, Saint Athanasius , the Pope of Alexandria for 46 years, from A. This status is well deserved, after all, Egypt was the refuge that the Holy Family sought in its flight from Judea: The contributions of the Coptic Church to Christendom are many. From the beginning, it played a central role in Christian theologyand especially to protect it from the Gnostics heresies.

The Coptic Church produced thousands of texts, biblical and theological studies which are important resources for archeology. The Holy Bible was translated to the Coptic language in the second century. Hundreds of scribes used to write copies of the Bible and other liturgical and theological books. Now libraries, museums and universities throughout the world possess hundreds and thousands of Coptic manuscripts.

Soon after its inception around A. Many prominent bishops from many areas of the world were instructed in that school under scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement, Didymus, and the great Origen, who was considered the father of theology and who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies.

Origen wrote over 6, commentaries of the Bible in addition to his famous Hexapla. Many scholars such as Saint Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars.

The scope of the school of Alexandria was not limited to theological subjects, because science, mathematics and the humanities were also taught there: The question and answer method of commentary began there, and 15 centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write.

The Theological college of the Catechetical School of Alexandria was re-established in Today, it has campuses in Alexandria , Cairo , New Jersey, and Los Angeles, where priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, history, Coptic language and artincluding chanting , music , iconography , tapestry etc.

Monasticism started in the last years of the third century and flourished in the fourth century. Saint Pachom, who established the rules of monasticism, was a Copt. By the end of the fourth century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian hills.

Many of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations till this day. All Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian example: Saint Basil, organiser of the monastic movement in Asia minor visited Egypt around A. And countless pilgrims visited the "Desert Fathers" and emulated their spiritual, disciplined lives. There is even evidence that Copts had missionaries to Nothern Europe.

One example is Saint Moritz of the Theban Legion who was drafted from Egypt to serve under the Roman flag and ended up teaching Christianity to inhabitants of the Swiss Alps, where a small town and a Monastery that contains his relics as well as some of his books and belongings are named after him.

Under the authority of the Eastern Roman Empire of Constantinople as opposed to the western empire of Rome , the Patriarchs and Popes of Alexandria played leading roles in Christian theology. They were invited everywhere to speak about the Christian faith. It was said that the bishops of the Church of Alexandria did nothing but spend all their time in meetings. This leading role, however, did not fare well when politics started to intermingle with Church affairs. It all started when the Emperor Marcianus interfered with matters of faith in the Church.

The response of Saint Dioscorus, the Pope of Alexandria who was later exiled, to this interference was clear: This doctrine maintains that the Lord Jesus Christ has only one nature, the divine, not two natures, the human as well as the divine. The Coptic Church has never believed in monophysitism the way it was portrayed in the Council of Chalcedon!

In that Council, monophysitism meant believing in one nature. Copts believe that the Lord is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by Saint Cyril of Alexandria.

Copts, thus, believe in two natures "human" and "divine" that are united in one "without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration" from the declaration of faith at the end of the Coptic divine liturgy. These two natures "did not separate for a moment or the twinkling of an eye" also from the declaration of faith at the end of the Coptic divine liturgy. The Coptic Church was misunderstood in the 5th century at the Council of Chalcedon.

Perhaps the Council understood the Church correctly, but they wanted to exile the Church, to isolate it and to abolish the Egyptian, independent Pope, who maintained that Church and State should be separate. Despite all of this, the Coptic Church has remained very strict and steadfast in its faith. It has remained a member of that council since A. The Church plays an important role in the Christian movement by conducting dialogues aiming at resolving the theological differences with the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox , Presbyterian, and Evangelical Churches.

Perhaps the greatest glory of the Coptic Church is its Cross. Copts take pride in the persecution they have sustained as early as May 8, 68 A. The Copts have been persecuted by almost every ruler of Egypt. Their Clergymen have been tortured and exiled even by their Christian brothers after the schism of Chalcedon in A. To emphasize their pride in their cross , Copts adopted a calendar, called the Calendar of the Martyrs, which begins its era on August 29, A.

This calendar is still in use all over Egypt by farmers to keep track of the various agricultural seasons and in the Coptic Church Lectionary. This is due to a large extent to the fortunate position that the Copts enjoyed, for the Prophet of Islam, who had an Egyptian wife the only one of his wives to bear a child , preached especial kindness towards Copts: Individuals who cannot afford to pay this tax were faced with the choice of either converting to Islam or losing their civil right to be "protected", which in some instances meant being killed.

Copts, despite additional sumptuary laws that were imposed on them in A. Surviving literature from monastic centers, dating back from the 8th to the 11th century, shows no drastic break in the activities of Coptic craftsmen, such as weavers, leather-binders, painters, and wood-workers. Throughout that period, the Coptic language remained the language of the land, and it was not until the second half of the 11th century that the first bi-lingual Coptic-Arabic liturgical manuscripts started to appear.

One of the first complete Arabic texts is the 13th century text by Awlaad El-Assal children of the Honey Maker , in which the laws, cultural norms and traditions of the Copts at this pivotal time, years after the Islamic conquest of Egypt were detailed.

Up to this day, the Coptic Language continues to be the liturgical language of the Church. The Christian face of Egypt started to change by the beginning of the second millennium A. For example, there were restrictions on repairing old Churches and building new ones, on testifying in court, on public behavior, on adoption, on inheritance, on public religious activities, and on dress codes. Slowly but steadily, by the end of the 12th century, the face of Egypt changed from a predominantly Christian to a predominantly Muslim country and the Coptic community occupied an inferior position and lived in some expectation of Muslim hostility, which periodically flared into violence.

It is remarkable that the well-being of Copts was more or less related to the well-being of their rulers. In particular, the Copts suffered most in those periods when Arab dynasties were at their low. The Coptic community ceased to be regarded by the state as an administrative unit and, by A. Today, this homogeneity is what keeps the Egyptian society united against the religious intolerance of extremist groups, who occasionally subject the Copts to persecution and terror.

Modern day martyrs, like Father Marcos Khalil , serve as reminders of the miracle of Coptic survival. Despite persecution , the Coptic Church as a religious institution has never been controlled or allowed itself to control the governments in Egypt.

This long-held position of the Church concerning the separation between State and Religion stems from the words of the Lord Jesus Christ himself, when he asked his followers to submit to their rulers: The Coptic Church has never forcefully resisted authorities or invaders and was never allied with any powers, for the words of the Lord Jesus Christ are clear: The miraculous survival of the Coptic Church till this day and age is a living proof of the validity and wisdom of these teachings.

Today [as of the writing of this document in A. This is in addition to another 1. Inside Egypt Copts live in every province and in no one of these provinces are they a majority. Their cultural, historical, and spiritual treasures are spread all over Egypt, even in its most remote oasis, the Kharga Oasis, deep in the western desert.

As individuals, Copts have reached prestigious academic and professional stature all over the world. One such individual is Dr. Copts observe seven canonical sacraments: Baptism is performed few weeks after birth by immersing the whole body of the newborn into especially consecrated water three times. Confirmation is performed immediately after Baptism. Regular confession with a personal priest, called the father of confession, is necessary to receive the Eucharist. It is customary for a whole family to pick the same priest as a father of confession, thus, making of that priest a family counselor.

Of all seven sacraments, only Matrimony cannot be performed during a fasting season. Polygamy is illegal, even if recognized by the civil law of the land. Divorce is not allowed except in the case of adultery, annulment due to bigamy, or other extreme circumstances, which must be reviewed by a special council of Bishops.

Divorce can be requested by either husband or wife. Civil divorce is not recognized by the Church. While the church has clear teachings about such matters e.

There are three main Liturgies in the Coptic Church: It was memorized by the Bishops and priests of the church till it was translated into the Coptic Language by Saint Cyril.

Today, these three Liturgies, with some added sections e. The worship of Saints is expressly forbidden by the Church; however, asking for their intercessions e.

Marian Praise is central in any Coptic service. Any Coptic Church is named after a Patron Saint. Her repeated daily appearances in a small Church in Elzaytoun district of Cairo for over a month in April of was witnessed by thousands of Egyptians, both Copts and Muslims and was even broadcast on International TV. Copts celebrate seven major Holy feasts and seven minor Holy feasts. Christmas is celebrated on January 7th. Easter is usually on the second Sunday after the first full moon in Spring.



Mizraim (Hebrew: ????????? ? / ????????? ?, Modern Mitzrayim Tiberian Mi?rayim / Mi?rayim ; cf. Arabic ???, Mi?r) (/m?t?srai:m/) is the Hebrew and Aramaic name for the land of Egypt, with the dual suffix -ayim, perhaps referring to the "two Egypts": Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt.. Neo-Babylonian texts use the term Mizraim for Egypt. The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Essay; The Ancient Egyptian Civilization Essay. Some of the paintings of ancient Egypt have stood the test of time due to Egyptís dry climate. Most of the paintings were done on walls and in caves and in funeral tombs to depict the life of the deceased and offer a pleasant passage. The ancient.

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