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Learning theory essay few strategies for cooperative learning include Reciprocal Questioning: Have you learning theory essay been faintly troubled by the amount of slipshod syntax going about? Theory A might be most helpful in developing a theory of handshakes at the end of a hockey game when each player shakes hands with players on the opposing team or in proving that the number of people who shook an odd number of hands at the MIT Symposium is even. Available online at http: Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences. American Journal of Distance Education, 6 2learning theory essay,

Description[ edit ] The theory consists of a set of principles and a model that defines the pedagogical aspects of education as contrasted with others such as management and policy in three sets of variables. Transactional distance theory states that when an instructional designer makes decisions, these decisions will result in a certain amount of structure, dialog and autonomy.

These amounts can be either unwitting consequences of the instructional design process, or the result of conscious instructional design decisions. Regardless, these variables interact to create transactional distance which Michael G.

Some of these are listed below together with a brief description. By the turn of the millennium, distance education had evolved from being synonymous with correspondence courses to being largely web-based. Aixu Monica Zhang built on Michael G. She found that these four sets of variables were highly and statistically correlated with Student Satisfaction, which she adopted as her surrogate measure for Transactional Distance.

Her work lead to a 31 element statistically reliable and significant Scale of Transactional Distance. Relative Proximity Theory Swart et al. Such a measure assumes meaning only when compared to another similar measure such as, for example, in a statistical pre —post intervention comparison.

Many studies do not lend themselves to pre-post intervention comparisons. For example, the transactional distance between an actual class and an ideal class. Revised Scale of Transactional Distance Paul et al. There are many changes in the educational environment that have occurred since Zhang developed her Scale of Transactional Distance: Coll-TD Scale Wengrowicz et al.

This scale builds on Michael G. This yielded a 40 element statistically reliable and valid instrument. This instrument extends the Coll-TD Scale to Flipped Classrooms where collaboration takes place both f2f, during interactive group learning sessions, and outside class virtual or f2f during collaboration on projects or take home exams.

This 46 element scale was also shown to be statistically valid and reliable. References[ edit ] Chen, Y. Journal of Distance Education, 13 2 , Transactional distance in World Wide Web learning environments. Dimensions of transactional distance in World Wide Web learning environment: British Journal of Educational Technology, 32 4: Bridging face and empirical validity.

Computers in Human Behavior. Beyond the Theoretical Impasse: Extending the applications of Transactional Distance Education Theory. Needs assessment for organizational success.

Redefining the Discipline of Adult Education. Theory of transactional distance. Theoretical principles of distance education. A Systems View, 3rd Edition. Published online, in https: Verifying key theoretical concepts in a dynamic model of distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 9 3. Transactional distance in web-based college learning environments: Toward measurement and theory construction. Available online at http: The influence of communication technologies and approaches to study on transactional distance in blended learning.

ALT-J, 15 2 , The Theory of Transactional Distance. The American Journal of Distance Education 5 3. Mathematics and distance education on the Internet: An investigation based on transactional distance education theory. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, Transactional issues in distance education: The impact of design in audio-teleconferencing. The American Journal of Distance Education, 9 2: The Pennsylvania State University.

Dimensions of "control" in distance education: American Journal of Distance Education, 6 2 , The impact of remote-site group size on student satisfaction and relative performance in interactive telecourses.

The American Journal of Distance Education, 11 1: Transactional distance, interactive television, and electronic mail communication in graduate public health and nursing courses: Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Hawaii.

Transactional distance and interactive television in the distance education of health professionals. American Journal of Distance Education, 10 3 , A study of transactional distance in an international audioconferencing course.

Proceedings of seventh international conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education. Dimensions of educational transactions in a videoconferencing learning environment. The American Journal of Distance Education, 13 1 , The American Journal of Distance Education, 13 2: Achieving self-organisation in network-based learning environments.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Brighton, UK. Transactional distance in a blended learning environment: Extended classrooms and a decreased transactional distance. AAT Garrison, D. Beyond independence in distance education: The concept of control. Theoretical Challenges for Distance Education in the 21st Century: A Shift from Structural to Transactional Issues.

Policy deficit in distance education: Bridging Transactional Distances in Distance Education: The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, 6 1 , Student perceptions on the online courses Michael G. Moore Doctoral dissertation, Seattle Pacific University, Rethinking distance learning activities: A comparison of transactional distance theory and activity theory.

Open Learning, 23 3 , American Journal of Distance Education Technology, Transactional Distance, and Instructor Effectiveness: Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4 2 , The characteristics of quality online Chinese language teaching and learning in higher education: Dissertation Abstracts International Lim, D. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 5 3 , An investigation of factors contributing to perceived transactional distance in an online setting Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado, The second dimension of independent learning.

Convergence, 5 2 , Towards a theory of independent learning and teaching. Journal of Higher Education, 44 , Investigation of the interaction between the cognitive style of field independence and attitudes to independent study.

Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Presence at a distance: The educator-learner relationship in distance education and dropout Doctoral dissertation, The University of British Columbia, Canada, Dissertation Abstracts International Pruitt, D, Transactional distance and learner autonomy as predictors of student performance in distance learning courses delivered by three modalities.

Lugano, Switzerland, June 21—26, Sharing the journey of facilitator and learner:

That I, whose experience of teaching is extremely limited, should presume to discuss education is a matter, surely, that calls for no apology. Behaviorist Learning Theory. Behaviorism is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior can be researched scientifically without recourse to inner mental states. It is a form of materialism, denying any independent significance for mind. Its significance for psychological treatment has been profound, making it one of the pillars .

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